Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most cultivated food crop of the world.it is a staple food for human beings and a good source of fodder to cattle.
Wheat needs cool climate, broad sunlight, and low humidity but by the evolution of thermo and photo-non-sensitive genotypes, it can be grown in every part of the country. it through best in meant temperature of 20ºC.sowing in low-temperature delays germination. The warm temperature during the early season is unfavourable for tillering. Cloudy weather, high humidity and low temperature attract rust attacks. Wheat plants require 14-15ºC temperature for optimum growth.
Wheat is grown in a variety of soils. Clay Loam soil with moderate water holding capacity is suitable for wheat cultivation. Very porous and excessively drained soil should be avoided.
North – Eastern Plains Zone (NEPZ) States of India (Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, Eastern UP, Assam and Plains of NE region) Varieties sown in Irrigated Area: HD 2733, HP 1761, PBW 343, K 9107, HP 1731, K 8804, K 7410, HUW 468, NW 1012, PBW 443, HD 2402, HUW 206, HP 1102, UP 262 K 8027, C 306 HD 4672 (durum wheat)JWS 17, Varieties sown in Rainfed area: NW 1014, HP 1744, HD 2643, HUW 234, HD 2307, HP 1633,HW 2045.
North – Western Plains Zone (NWPZ)States of India (Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Western UP, Alwar, Bharatpur and Sriganganagar districts of Rajasthan; Una district and Paonta valley of H.P.).Varieties sown in Irrigated Area : HD 2687,PBW 343, WH 542, UP 2338, CPAN 3004, HD 2329, HD 2428, HD 2204, Raj 3077, PBW 34 (durum wheat)BW 215 (durum wheat)WH 896 (durum wheat)PDW 233 (durum wheat)PBW 396, PBW 299, Varieties sown in Rainfed Area: Raj 3765, UP 2338 PBW 226, HD 2270, Raj 3077, HD 2285, WH 291, Raj 2184.
Central Zone (CZ) States of India (Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh Gujarat, Parts of Rajasthan). Varieties sown in Irrigated Area : GW 273, GW 190, DL 803-3, HI 8498 (durum wheat)Hl 8381 (durum wheat)Raj 1555 (durum wheat)Hl 1077, HD 2336, Lok-1, WH 146, GW 322, HD 4672 (durum wheat)JWS 17, HW 2004, C 306, Varieties sown in Rainfed Area: DL 788-2, GW 173,
Lok-1, HD 2327
Peninsular Zone (PZ) State of India (Maharashtra, Andra Pradesh, Karnataka, Goa and Plains of Tamil Nadu). Varieties sown in Irrigated Area: MACS 2496, HD 2189, HD 2380, DWR 162, MACS 2694 (durum wheat)GW 322, MACS 2846 (durum wheat)DDK 1001 E (dic.), DDK 1009 (dicoccum) K 9644, NI 5439, MACS 1967 (durum wheat)N59 (durum wheat)HD 2781 Bijaga Yellow (durum wheat) Varieties sown in Rainfed Area: NIAW 34, H\ 977, HD 2501, HD 2610, DWR 195
Southern Hills Zone (SHZ) Nilgiri and. Patni Hills. Varieties sown in Irrigated Area: HW 1085, HUW 318, HW 971, HW 741.,HW 2044, NP 200 Varieties sown in Rainfed Area:
Northern Hills Zone (NHZ) Hills of J&K HP., Uttaranchal and Sikkim. Varieties sown in Irrigated: VL 738, HS 240, VL 719, UP 1109, HD
2380, HS 86, VL 804 , VL 719, UP 1109, VL 421, DT 46 (Trit) Varieties sown in Rainfed Area:HS 295, HPW 89, HS 207
Wheat crops require deep well pulverized with good moisture. Where Tractor is available one deep ploughing followed by two two three harrowing with disc followed 2 to 3 planking should be given to secure fine tilth and conserve moisture. Where bullocks are available deep ploughing with 2 to 3 should be followed.
Seed rate depends upon size, spacing and fertility status of the soil. Normally a seed rate of 100Kg/ha in favourable condition is sufficient. 125 Kg/ha of seed is used in rainfed and late sown areas. The depth of sowing 4-6 centimetre and spacing of 15 – 20 cm should be maintained between rows and under rainfed 22.5 cm apart.
Manure and Fertilizers
About 10-15 tonnes of well-rotted FYM or compost should be applied before 5 to 6 weeks before sowing.
Crop yielding 50 quintals of grains per hectare draws 100-150 kg of nitrogen,70-80 Kg of Phosphorus and 125 – 150 kg of potash.
Under assured irrigation 80-120 Kg N,40-60 Kg P, 40 Kg K, 15 Kg Zinc should be fertilized.
Under restricted irrigation 60-80 Kg N,40 Kg P, 25 Kg K, 20 Kg Zinc should be fertilized.
Note: For better response and good crop soil testing should be done before deciding the fertilizer doses for the crop.
Frequent and light irrigation is needed for the wheat crop. Waterlogging or deep irrigation should be avoided as it more harmful then crop growing in rainfed. Under assured irrigated condition crop should be irrigated 4-6 times 1. Crown-root initiation stage 2. Maximum tillering stage 3. Jointing Stage 4.Flowering stage 5. Soft dough stage. Under limited irrigation irrigate the crop 1. Crown-root initiation stage 2. Flowering stage
For Broadleaf Weeds use 0.75 kg a.i /ha amine salt or o.5 kg a.i/ha ethyl ester of 2, 4- D herbicide after 28-35 days of sowing or at 4-6 leaf stage of the crop.
to controllMoncot weeds use: 0.75 kg a.i/ha after 30-35 days of sowing the wheat crop.
Note: Do not spray 2, 4- D herbicide when grown mixed with pulses or mustard.
High yielding dwarf Varieties under irrigated condition produce 45- 55 quintals grains/ha and 20-25 quintals grains/ha under rainfed condition.