SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor L.)(Rainfed)
LOCAL NAMES :- Juar (Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi), Jola (Kannada), Cholam (Malayalam, Tamil), Jwari Marathi), Janha (Oriya), Jonnalu (Telugu), Other names: Milo, Chari, etc.
ORIGIN:– There are different views about place of origin of sorghum. Warth (1937) was of the opinion that it was originated in India and Africa. De Candolle said that sorghum was originated in Africa. It is believed to originate from North East of Africa or Abyssinia and brought to USA and European countries by slaves.
SOILS: – Jawar can be grown on all types of soils but heavy soils are most suitable. Adequate drainage should be provided.
VARIETY: – CSH-6, CSH-9, CO 26, CO (S) 28, CO (S) 30.
Seed rate: – 12 to 15 kg/ha Seed treatment
- Seed hardening ensures high germination. The seeds are pre-soaked in 2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution for 6 hours in equal volume and then dried back to its original moisture content in shade and are used for sowing.
- Harden the seeds with 1% aqueous fresh leaf extract of Prosopis juliflora and pungam, (Pongamia pinnata) mixed in 1:1 for 16 hrs at 1:0.6 ratio (Seed and solution) followed by drying and subsequently pelleting the seeds with Pungam leaf powder @300 g/kg with gruel.
- Soak the seeds in 500 ppm of CCC (500 mg in one litre of water) for six hours and shade dry the seeds for 5 hours. Use 350 ml of solution for soaking one kg of seed.
- Treat the seeds with three packets of Azospirillum (600 g) and 3 packets of phosphobacteria or 6 packets of Azophos (1200 g/ha). In the main field, apply 10 packets of Azospirillum 2000 g/ha and 10 packets (2000g/ha) of phosphobacteria or 20 packets of Azophos (4000 g/ha) with phosphobacteria 2 kg with 25 kg FYM + 25 kg soi
Sowing :- Sow the hardened seeds at 5 cm depth with seed cum fertilizer drill to ensure uniform depth of sowing and fertilizer application before the onset of monsoon.Sow the seeds well before the onset of monsoon or with the first break of monsoon rains. at 5 cm depth (by seed drill or by country plough). The seed is pelletised with 15 g of Chloropyriphos in 150 ml of gum and shade dried. • Sow the sorghum seeds over the line where the fertilizers are placed. • Sow the seeds at a depth of 5 cm and cover with the soil. • Sow the seeds with the spacings of 15 cm in the paired rows spaced 60 cm apart. • Sow the pulse seeds to fall 10 cm apart in the furrows between the paired rows of sorghum. Spacing: 45 x 15 cm or 45 x 10 cm.
Weed management:- Keep sorghum field free of weeds from second week after germination till 5th week. If sufficient moisture is available spray Atrazine @ 500 g/ha as pre-emergence application within 3 days after the receipt of the soaking rainfall for sole sorghum while for sorghum based intercropping system with pulses, use Pendimethalin at 3.0 l/ha.