Rice is grown in 250 million Asian farms. Rice farming is 10,000 years old. Once basis of social order and occupied major place in religions and customs. Rice is used pay debts, wages, and rent. Staple food for largest number of humanity in the world. It is single largest source of energy for poor. Rice is synonym with food throughout Asia.
Climatic Requirement:In India, rice is grown under widely varying conditions of altitude and climate. Rice cultivation in India extends from 8 to 350 N latitude and from sea level to as high as 3000 metres. Rice crop needs a hot and humid climate. It is best suited to regions which have high humidity, prolonged sunshine and an assured supply of water. The average temperature required throughout the life period of the crop ranges from 21 to 370 C. At the time of tillering the crop requires a higher temperature than for growth. Temperature requirement for blooming is in the range of 26.5 to 29.50 C. At the time of ripening, the temperature should be between 20-250 C. Photo-periodically, rice is a short-day plant. However, there are varieties which are non-sensitive to photoperiodic conditions.
Soil Requirements: Rice grows under diverse soil conditionsthat it can be said that there is hardly any type of soil in which it cannot be grown, including alkaline and acidic soils. Soils having good water retention capacity with good amount of clay and organic matter are ideal for rice cultivation. Clay or clay loams are most suited for rice cultivation, such soils are capable of holding water for long and sustain crop. Rice being a semi-aquatic crop grows best under submerged conditions. The rice soils with high percolation rate reduce the water use efficiency considerably. Therefore, rice cultivation needs careful attention in such soils.
Varieties: Thefollowing high yielding varieties of rice are recommended for different situations.
Seed Rate: 40 Kg of seed per hectare for fine varieties such as IET-1410, Ratna and Tawi (PC-19) and 40-45 Kg per hectare for coarse varieties such as China-1039, K-39 and Jaya. For direct sowing, 75 Kg of seed per hectare is recommended. For hybrids, use seed rate of 15 kg/ha.
Seed Treatment:Treat the seeds with 2.5 g of Carbendazim 50 WP or Carbendazim 5.0 g + 2.5 g antibiotics (based on Streptocyclinesulphate + tetracycline hydrochloride) in 25 L of water and immerse 25-30 kg of seed for 12 hours and stir thoroughly after every half an hour. Remove the seeds at the end of 12th hour and sow directly.
For dry sowing treat the seed before sowing with Carbendazim @ 2g/kg of seed.
Note: Farmers are advised to use invariably the certified seed to ensure safety from seed born disease. Use 10% higher seed rate in intermediate to temperate areas for late group.
Nursery Raising:-Nursery area: Select 20 cents (800 m2 ) of land area near to water source for raising seedlings for one hectare or 1/10 to 1/15th ha area is required for sowing nursery for one hectare of rainfed area and 1/15 to 1/20th ha for irrigated conditions
Manuring of Nursery:- Incorporate 15 kg of well rotten F.Y.M. or Compost, 60 g of Urea and 50 g of D.A.P. per 10 sq.m. of nursery bed.
When F.Y.M. or compost is not available, mix 120 g urea and 100 g of D.A.P. per 10 Sq.m. of nursery bed.
- PREPARATION OF NURSERY BED:
- Dry method Dry ploughed field with fine tilth is required. • Nursery area of 20 cents with sand and loamy soil status is more suitable for this type of nursery. • Plots of 1 to 1.5m width of beds and channels to be formed. Length is according to the slope and soil. Raised beds are more ideal if the soil is clayey in nature. • Seed rate and seed treatment as that of wet nursery. • Sowing is dry seeding. Seeds are covered with sand and finely powdered well decomposed farm yard manure. • Irrigation to be done to wet the soil to saturation. • Optimum age for transplanting – 4 to 6 leaf stage. • This type of nursery is handy in times of delayed receipt of canal water.
- Wet method: Puddle the field thoroughly. Prepare leveled beds each 1.25 m wide and of any convenient length. This method is recommended for late transplantation areas.
3.SOWING OF SEED:
Dry method: Sow the seeds in lines 5 cm apart and 3 cm deep. Cover the seeds with a thin layer of soil and irrigate upto 3/4th height of the seed bed. With a thin layer of soil and irrigate upto 3/4th height of the seed bed. Again irrigate after 05 days of germination of seeds and keep water 1 cm deep in the beds. Drain the water occasionally.
Wet method: Sow sprouted seeds uniformly on the seed beds, having sufficient water in nursery. After the sprouts are 1-2 cm long, bed may be kept submerged with a shallow layer of water. Bed should be weed free.
- Keep the seedlings free from weeds either with hand weeding or by herbicide application i.e. Butachlor 5G @ 30 kg/ha after the emergence of first leaf in sprouted seeds.
- In low-lying and water logged areas where thread worms and root weevil are the problems, incorporate carbofuran @ 20 kg/ha in the soil at the time of last ploughing.
- Protect seedlings from leaf hopper and stem borer by applying Phorate 10G @ 10 kg/ha or Carbofuran 3 G @ 20 kg/ha in 5-7.5 cm standing water and keep water standing at least for 72 hours after application or carbaryl 50% WP @ 1 kg/ha when there are 5% dead hearts per sq.m.
- In case of surface hopper (Tidha) attack, dust the crop with Follidal 2% D @ 20-25 kg/ha in 750 L of water.
- In case of seedling blight, spray the seedlings in the nursery with Zineb @ 1.5 kg/ha in 750 L of water.
- Plough the land during summer to economize the water requirement for initial preparation of land. • Flood the field 1 or 2 days before ploughing and allow water to soak in. Keep the surface of the field covered with water. • Keep water to a depth of 2.5cm at the time of puddling.
FERTILIZERS: – For efficient use of chemical fertilizers, get soil tested well in advance of transplanting from the Soil Testing Laboratory and apply the recommended dose of fertilizers to crop accordingly. In absence of such tests following fertilizer schedule is recommended for soil of an average fertility.
- Zinc sulphate should be applied wherever deficiency is noticed.
- When full dose of phosphate is applied in wheat crop then reduce the quantity of phosphate by 25% to 50% in case of paddy.
- Phosphatic fertilizer can be top dressed upto 30 DAT if not applied as basal dose.
*For Ponni, N should be applied in three splits at Active tillering (AT), panicle initiation (PI) and harvest (H) stages.
Split application of N and K • Apply N and K in four equal splits viz., basal, tillering, panicle initiation and heading stages. • Tillering and panicle initiation periods are crucial and should not be reduced with the recommended quantity. Application of P fertilizer • P may be applied as basal and incorporated. • When the green manure is applied, rock phosphate can be used as a cheap source of P fertilizer. If rock phosphate is applied, the succeeding rice crop need not be supplied with P. Application of rock phosphate + single super phosphate or DAP mixed in different proportions (75:25 or 50:50) is equally effective as SSP or DAP alone. Application of Zinc sulphate • Apply 25 kg of zinc sulphate mixed with 50 kg dry sand just before transplanting. • It is enough to apply 12.5 kg zinc sulphate /ha, if green manure (6.25 t/ha) or enriched FYM, is applied. • If deficiency symptom appears, foliar application of 0.5% Zinc sulphate + 1.0% urea can be given at 15 days interval until the Zn deficiency symptoms disappear. Application of gypsum • Apply 500 kg of gypsum/ha (as source of Ca and S nutrients) at last ploughing. Foliar nutrition • Foliar spray of 1% urea + 2% DAP + 1% KCl at PI and 10 days later for all varieties. Neem treated urea • Blend the urea with crushed neem seed or neem cake 20% by weight. Powder neem cake to pass through 2mm sieve before mixing with urea. Keep it overnight before use (or) urea can be mixed with gypsum in 1:3 ratios, or urea can be mixed with gypsum and neem cake at 5:4:1 ratio to increase the nitrogen use efficiency.
TRANSPLANTING: – When puddle settles, transplant the seedlings 3 to 5 cm deep. Shallow transplanting ensures better establishment of plants and early tillering. Plant 2-3 seedlilngs per hill.
IRRIGATION AND WATER MANAGEMENT: – Maintain 5 cm water, till 5 days after transplanting. Resume irrigation, when hair size cracks develop on soil surface and then follow alternate wetting and drying till maturity. Moisture stress due to inadequate water at rooting and tillering stage causes poor root growth leading to reduction in tillering, poor stand and low yield. • Critical stages of water requirement in rice are, a) panicle initiation, b) booting, c) heading and d) flowering. During these stages, the irrigation interval should not exceed the stipulated time so as to cause the depletion of moisture below the saturation level. Stop irrigation three weeks before harvest for uniform and early ripening of the crop.
INTERCULTURE AND WEED CONTROL:-Weed management • Manual weeding is also essential to remove the weeds closer to rice root zone. • Cultural practices like dual cropping of rice-Azolla, reduces the weed infestation to a greater extent. • Summer ploughing and cultivation of irrigated dry crops during post-rainy periods reduces the weed infestation. Pre-emergence herbicides • Use Butachlor 1.25kg/ha or Butachlor granules 5 G @ 30kg/ha or Anilophos 0.4kg/ha as pre-emergence application. Alternatively, pre-emergence application of herbicide mixture viz., Butachlor 0.6kg + 2,4 DEE 0.75kg/ha, or Anilophos + 2, 4 DEE ‘ready-mix’ at 0.4kg/ha followed by one hand weeding on 30-35 DAT will have a broad spectrum of weed control. • Any herbicide has to be mixed with 50kg of dry sand on the day of application (3-4 DAT) and applied uniformly to the field with thin film water on the 3 DAT. Water should not be drained for next 2 days from the field (or) fresh irrigation should not be given. Post – emergence herbicides • If pre-emergence herbicide application is not done, hand weeding has to be done on 15th DAT. • 2,4-D sodium salt (Fernoxone 80% WP) 1.25 kg/ha dissolved in 625 litres with a high volume sprayer, three weeks after transplanting or when the weeds are in 3-4 leaf stage. To remove weeds and stir the soil, two weedings are important. If the crop has been transplanted in lines, interculture with a rice weeder may be done by running it in between the crop rows i.e. first weeding and hoeing 15 days after transplanting and second operation after a fortnight. In case, the crop has not been transplanted in lines, two hand weedings may be given as per above time schedule.
Note: – Use hand gloves while applying butachlor granules.