MAIZE

ORIGIN :- The primary centre of origin of maize is considered by most authorities to be the Central America and Mexico

MAIZE GRAIN TYPES :- Flint corn (Zea mays indurata)  Entire outer portion of kernel is hard starch. Flint comes in many colours such as white, yellow, red-blue or their variable.

Dent corn (Zea mays indentata)  About 95% of production in USA is dent corn. Hard starch is confined to kernel only. The amylose of soft starch in the core contracts when the grain is dried producing characteristic dent in the top of the kernel. May be yellow, white and red colour of kernel.

Sweet corn (Zea mays saccharata)  Grown for food and harvested at 70% moisture content. It is good source of energy. About 20% of dry matter is sugar compared to 3% in dent corn. It is also a good source of vitamin C & A.

Flour corn (Zea mays amylacea)  Kernel is largely composed of soft starch with little or no hard starch. Kernels are easy to grind. Primarily used by natives of Andean Highlands of South America.

Pop corn (Zea mays everta)  It’s kernel is small and extreme form of flint corn. When heated to 170°C, the grain swells and burst and turning inside out. At this temperature, the water held in the starch turns to steam and the pressure causes the explosion

Waxy corn (Zea mays ceretina)  Due to waxy appearance of the kernel, it is called as waxy corn. The starch is entirely amylopectin whereas dent has 78% and 22% amylose. Hybrids of waxy are raw materials for wet milling starch industry for textile and paper sizing and corn oil.

SOIL AND CLIMATIC REQUIREMENT:-  Soil requirement  Deep, fertile, rich in organic matter and well drained soils are the most preferred ones for the crop; however, maize can be grown on a variety of soil types. Maize requires considerable moisture and warmness from the  beginning  of  sowing  to  the  end  of  flowering HYBRID MAIZE:

GANGA SAFED 2 (GS-2): –     This variety is suitable for sub-tropical areas of Jammu Division where maize is preferred. It matures in 95-100 days. HIM-123: –     This variety is suitable for temperate and warm temperate areas. COMPOSITE MAIZE: –

  1. VIJAY: – This variety has semiflint yellow grains and is suitable for the areas, which fall between 600  m  to  1350  m  height.  This  variety  can  be  rotated  with  other  crops depending upon the altitude.
  2. C-6 (SHALIMAR): – Orange yellow flint variety, suitable for hilly areas which fall between 1050 m to 1800 m height. This variety can be rotated with early crop of oilseeds, barley or vegetable pea upto 1500 m height.
  3. C-2: – This is a yellow grained variety and is suitable for the hilly areas which fall between 1050 m to 1800 m height.
  4. SUPER COMPOSITE (MANSAR): – It has orange flint grains with a yield potential of 50- 60 q/ha. It is also recommended for mid elevation and plains of Jammu.
  5. COMPOSITE (TRIKUTA): – It has orange flint grains with a yield potential of 50-60 q/ha. It is also recommended for mid elevation and plains of Jammu.

The  above  two  composites  have  out  yielded  local  varieties  by  50%  and  are  more resistant to diseases than local varieties.

  1. COMPOSITE C-8: – This variety has creamy white, bold, semiflint to samident grains variety having a yield potential of 55-60 a/ha. It is recommended for mid elevation and plains of Jammu. It can fit into different crop rotations similar to hybrid maize GS-2 under sub-tropical areas of Jammu.
  2. COMPOSITE C-15 (REHMAT): – It is an early maturing composite suitable for higher elevations upto an altitude of 2250 m. It has yellow dent, semident grains and a yield potential of 50-60 q/ha. It is also suited for hilly regions of Jammu.

SEED RATE :-  Select good quality seeds and adopt the seed rate of 20 kg/ha for grain maize and 25 kg /ha for baby corn.

      1 FOR PLAIN AREAS: – Use 20 kg of seed/ha for line sown crop. In case of broadcast sowing, use 30 kg of seed/ha.

  1. HILLY AREAS: – Use 35-40 kg seed/ha.

SEED TREATMENT: –     To avoid diseases ensure seed treatment before sowing. Seed treatment also helps in better germination.  Before sowing, treat the seed with Captan or Thiram Thiram @ 3 g per kg of seed. Where head smut is a problem, treat the seed with carboxin W.P. at 2.5 g per kg of seed or carbendazim 2 g/kg seed

MANURES AND FERTILIZERS: – 1.   Apply  150  quintals  well  rotten  FYM  or  Compost/ha  &  incorporate  into  the  soil thoroughly with the first plough.

Maize fertilizer
  1. In addition to FYM/Compost application, balanced application of chemical fertilizers is also necessary. For balanced fertilizer, application the soil should be got tested prior to sowing of the crops.
  2. However, in general, for average fertility conditions, the following dose of chemical fertilizers is recommended.  If  150  quintals  of  FYM/Compost  is  added,  reduce  the quantity of below noted nutrients by 25%. NOTE:     Zinc Sulphate should at least be applied once in three years.

METHOD OF FERTILIZER APPLICATION

  1. a) Drill entire quantity of P and K along with Zinc Sulphate and 2/3rd N at the time of

sowing with pora as basal dose.

  1. b) Remaining quantity of nitrogen may be applied as top dressing in two equal splits – 1st when the plants are knee high stage i.e. a month after sowing and 2nd before tassel

formation i.e. about two months after sowing.

NOTE:     Top dressing of urea should always be done in the after noon hours when foliage is dry otherwise urea will burn the foliage.

WEED CONTROL

(I) CULTURAL  PRACTICES: –     Maize crop should be kept free of weeds upto 40 days after

sowing, otherwise yield is considerably reduced. Two hoeing to the crop should be given, one at 15 days and other at 30 days after sowing. Weeds within the rows can be effectively controlled by using traphali or 5 tinned hoes. This can be done with khurpa or hand blade hoe too.

The crop should  also be earthened up with bullock drawn ridger or with a spade when the crop is at knee high stage (after one month of sowing).

NOTE:     No inter culture should be done after 6 weeks of sowing since this would lead to      pruning of fine roots and finally reduced the production.

(ii)  CHEMICAL METHOD: –     Atrazine herbicide @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha in 800-1000 L of water should be sprayed on soil surface just after sowing as pre-emergence application to control weeds  in the sole crop of maize. Herbicides recommended for maize + pulse intercrops are as follow:

  1. Pendimethalin @ 1kg a.i./ha (Pre-emergence)
  2. Fluchloralin @ 0.75 kg a.i./ha (Preplant incorporation)

IRRIGATION AND WATER MANAGEMENT: –     Maize is a rainy season crop and does not withstand water logging, hence arrangements for drainage of excess water from the maize field should always be made at the time of sowing. This can be done by providing shallow surface drains at suitable intervals and main drainage channel.

For irrigated crop, irrigate the field 5 to 7 days earlier to sowing and when soil

comes to proper “Vetter” conditions sow the seed.

Irrigate the crop as and when necessary never allow the crop to suffer from

water stress condition. Moisture stress at flowering and at grain formation stages reduces the yield, tremendously. Hence, irrigate the crop at these stages if there is no rain water available.

Never allow water to stand in the field for more than 3 hours

PLANT PROTECTION: –

Diseases:-

  1. In addition to FYM/Compost application, balanced application of chemical fertilizers is also necessary. For balanced fertilizer, application the soil should be got tested prior to sowing of the crops.
  2. However, in general, for average fertility conditions, the following dose of chemical fertilizers is recommended.  If  150  quintals  of  FYM/Compost  is  added,  reduce  the quantity of below noted nutrients by 25%. NOTE:     Zinc Sulphate should at least be applied once in three years.

METHOD OF FERTILIZER APPLICATION

  1. a) Drill entire quantity of P and K along with Zinc Sulphate and 2/3rd N at the time of

sowing with pora as basal dose.

  1. b) Remaining quantity of nitrogen may be applied as top dressing in two equal splits – 1st when the plants are knee high stage i.e. a month after sowing and 2nd before tassel

formation i.e. about two months after sowing.

NOTE:     Top dressing of urea should always be done in the after noon hours when foliage is dry otherwise urea will burn the foliage.

WEED CONTROL

(I) CULTURAL  PRACTICES: –     Maize crop should be kept free of weeds upto 40 days after

sowing, otherwise yield is considerably reduced. Two hoeing to the crop should be given, one at 15 days and other at 30 days after sowing. Weeds within the rows can be effectively controlled by using traphali or 5 tinned hoes. This can be done with khurpa or hand blade hoe too.

The crop should  also be earthened up with bullock drawn ridger or with a spade when the crop is at knee high stage (after one month of sowing).

NOTE:     No inter culture should be done after 6 weeks of sowing since this would lead to      pruning of fine roots and finally reduced the production.

(ii)  CHEMICAL METHOD: –     Atrazine herbicide @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha in 800-1000 L of water should be sprayed on soil surface just after sowing as pre-emergence application to control weeds  in the sole crop of maize. Herbicides recommended for maize + pulse intercrops are as follow:

  1. Pendimethalin @ 1kg a.i./ha (Pre-emergence)
  2. Fluchloralin @ 0.75 kg a.i./ha (Preplant incorporation)

IRRIGATION AND WATER MANAGEMENT: –     Maize is a rainy season crop and does not withstand water logging, hence arrangements for drainage of excess water from the maize field should always be made at the time of sowing. This can be done by providing shallow surface drains at suitable intervals and main drainage channel.

For irrigated crop, irrigate the field 5 to 7 days earlier to sowing and when soil

comes to proper “Vetter” conditions sow the seed.

Irrigate the crop as and when necessary never allow the crop to suffer from

water stress condition. Moisture stress at flowering and at grain formation stages reduces the yield, tremendously. Hence, irrigate the crop at these stages if there is no rain water available.

Never allow water to stand in the field for more than 3 hours

PLANT PROTECTION: –

Diseases:-

Maize Pesticide
Maize Fungicides