Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and is the most important cereals in the world because it grows efficiently in rainfed conditions. it is grown in cooler and semi-arid area of the world where wheat is not well adapted.

Cultural Practices

Climatic Requirements

Barley requires cool climate during early growth and dry weather at is the most suited crop for the drought-prone area because of its low water requirement.

Soil Requirement

 Wheat is grown in a variety of soils. But thrives best in well-drained loamy soils. Being a salt tolerant crop it can also be grown in such conditions.


North – Eastern Plains Zone (NEPZ) States of India  (Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, Eastern UP, Assam and Plains of NE region) Varieties sown in Irrigated  Area: HD 2733, HP 1761, PBW 343, K 9107, HP 1731, K 8804, K 7410, HUW 468, NW 1012, PBW 443, HD 2402, HUW 206, HP 1102, UP 262 K 8027, C 306 HD 4672 (durum  wheat)JWS 17, Varieties sown in Rainfed area: NW 1014, HP 1744, HD 2643, HUW 234, HD 2307, HP 1633,HW 2045.  

North – Western Plains Zone (NWPZ)States of  India (Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Western UP, Alwar, Bharatpur and Sriganganagar districts of Rajasthan; Una district and Paonta valley of H.P.).Varieties sown in Irrigated Area : HD 2687,PBW 343, WH 542, UP 2338, CPAN 3004, HD 2329, HD 2428, HD 2204, Raj 3077, PBW 34 (durum  wheat)BW 215 (durum  wheat)WH 896 (durum  wheat)PDW 233 (durum  wheat)PBW 396, PBW 299,  Varieties sown in Rainfed Area: Raj 3765, UP 2338 PBW 226, HD 2270, Raj 3077, HD 2285, WH 291, Raj 2184.  

Central Zone (CZ) States of India (Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh Gujarat, Parts of Rajasthan). Varieties sown in Irrigated Area : GW 273, GW 190, DL 803-3, HI 8498 (durum  wheat)Hl 8381 (durum  wheat)Raj 1555 (durum  wheat)Hl 1077, HD 2336, Lok-1, WH 146, GW 322, HD 4672 (durum  wheat)JWS 17, HW 2004, C 306, Varieties sown in Rainfed Area:  DL 788-2, GW 173,
Lok-1, HD 2327

Peninsular Zone (PZ) State of  India (Maharashtra, Andra Pradesh, Karnataka, Goa and Plains of Tamil Nadu). Varieties sown in Irrigated  Area: MACS 2496, HD 2189, HD 2380, DWR 162, MACS 2694 (durum  wheat)GW 322, MACS 2846 (durum  wheat)DDK 1001 E (dic.), DDK 1009 (dicoccum) K 9644, NI 5439, MACS 1967 (durum  wheat)N59 (durum  wheat)HD 2781 Bijaga Yellow (durum  wheat)  Varieties sown in Rainfed Area:  NIAW 34, H\ 977, HD 2501, HD 2610, DWR 195

Southern Hills Zone (SHZ) Nilgiri and. Patni Hills.  Varieties sown in Irrigated  Area: HW 1085, HUW 318, HW 971, HW 741.,HW 2044, NP 200  Varieties sown in Rainfed Area:

Northern Hills Zone (NHZ) Hills of J&K HP., Uttaranchal and Sikkim. Varieties sown in Irrigated:  VL 738, HS 240, VL 719, UP 1109, HD
2380, HS 86, VL 804 , VL 719, UP 1109, VL 421, DT 46 (Trit) Varieties sown in Rainfed Area:HS 295, HPW 89, HS 207

Field Prepration

Wheat crops require deep well pulverized with good moisture. Where Tractor is available one deep ploughing followed by two two three harrowing with disc followed  2 to 3 planking should be given to secure fine tilth and conserve moisture. Where bullocks are available deep ploughing with 2 to 3 should be followed.

Seed Rate

Seed rate depends upon size, spacing and fertility status of the soil.  Normally a seed rate of 100Kg/ha in favourable condition is sufficient. 125 Kg/ha of seed is used in rainfed and late sown areas. The depth of sowing 4-6 centimetre and spacing of 15 – 20 cm should be maintained between rows and under rainfed 22.5 cm apart.

Manure and Fertilizers

About 10-15 tonnes of well-rotted FYM or compost should be applied before 5 to 6 weeks before sowing.

Crop yielding 50 quintals of grains per hectare draws 100-150 kg of nitrogen,70-80 Kg of Phosphorus and 125 – 150 kg of potash.

Under assured irrigation 80-120 Kg N,40-60 Kg P, 40 Kg K, 15 Kg Zinc should be fertilized.

Under restricted irrigation 60-80 Kg N,40 Kg P, 25 Kg K, 20 Kg Zinc should be fertilized.

Note: For better response and good crop soil testing should be done before deciding the fertilizer doses for the crop. 


Frequent and light irrigation is needed for the wheat crop. Waterlogging or deep irrigation should be avoided as it more harmful then crop growing in rainfed. Under assured irrigated condition crop should be irrigated 4-6 times 1. Crown-root initiation stage 2. Maximum tillering stage 3. Jointing Stage 4.Flowering stage 5. Soft dough stage. Under limited irrigation irrigate the crop  1. Crown-root initiation stage 2. Flowering stage

Weed Managment

For Broadleaf Weeds use 0.75 kg a.i /ha amine salt or o.5 kg a.i/ha ethyl ester of 2, 4- D herbicide after 28-35 days of sowing or at 4-6 leaf stage of the crop. 

to controllMoncot weeds use: 0.75 kg a.i/ha after 30-35 days of sowing the wheat crop.

Note: Do not spray 2, 4- D herbicide when grown mixed with pulses or mustard.

Plant Protection

Diseases Management

Wheat fungicide 1
Wheat fungicide 2

Insect-Pest Management

Wheat Pesticides


High yielding dwarf Varieties under irrigated condition produce 45- 55 quintals grains/ha and 20-25 quintals grains/ha under rainfed condition.